strengths and weaknesses of athens and sparta in the peloponnesian war
As a result, Athens opened its city walls to all residents of Attica, which caused the population of Athens to swell considerably during the early stages of the Peloponnesian War. Fighting would continue amongst the Greeks after the Peloponnesian war, and Sparta eventually fell to Thebes and its newly formed Boeotian League. The idea was that if they did not expand, someone else would, and this would put their precious democracy at risk. But they were forced to stop because the force they had sent to Egypt to fight the Persians (who controlled most of Egypt at the time), had been badly defeated, leaving the Athenians vulnerable to a Persian retaliation. The First Peloponnesian War ended in an arrangement between Sparta and Athens, which was ratified by the “Thirty Years’ Peace” (winter of 446–445 BC). http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0009%3Achapter%3D12. To take advantage of this, Sparta began sending envoys to these cities encouraging them to rebel against Athens, which many of them did. This strategy ended up backfiring slightly as a plague broke out in Athens in 430 BCE that devastated the city. Peace lasted much less than thirty years, and soon after the two sides agreed to put down their weapons, The Peloponnesian War broke out and the Greek world was changed forever. They would do the electing.
However, the Athenians felt it was necessary to pursue the Persians and push them further away from Greek territory, a decision that caused the war to continue for another 30 years. This value system allowed for the Athenians to repeatedly refuse Sparta’s offers of peace after major defeats, and it also encouraged Athenians to keep fighting and for Spartans to press on long after the conflict should have ended. But when they got to the battle, they ended up fighting, which only escalated things further. Lazenby, John F. The Defence of Greece: 490-479 BC. Using the power and resources of its allies, Athens began to expand its influence in the region, which has caused many historians to swap the name “Delian League” for Athenian Empire. arguments that can be made is whether Athens or Sparta and her allies won the Peloponnesian Wars. Thebes and Corinth wanted to burn it to the ground and enslave its people, but the Spartans rejected this notion.
Finally, Sparta’s arrogance ultimately led to its downfall. In Sparta, full citizens were forbidden from doing manual labor, and this meant that nearly all of Sparta’s food supply depended on the forced labor of these helots, many of whom were the subjects or descendants of cities on the Peloponnese conquered by Sparta. The Athenians, however, showed up uninvited to this congress, and a great debate, recorded by Thucydides, took place.
This was the Peloponnesian War. Then, The Four Hundred lost control of Athens, surrendering to a much larger group of oligarchs knowns as “the 5,000.” But in the midst of all this, Alcibiades, who had previously defected to Sparta during the Syracuse campaign, had been trying to earn his way back into the good graces of the Athenian elite. advancement for the Greeks, its existence, regardless of how far it had the potential to spread, could not have been enough to stop eminent Macedonian rule over the Greeks. Nearly fifty years of Greek history before the outbreak of the Peloponnesian War had been marked by the development of Athens as a major power in the Mediterranean world. However, Corinth, one of the few city-states in the Peloponnesian League that could stand up to Sparta’s power, was adamantly opposed to this move, and so the notion of war was tabled for some time. Athens’ new offensive strategy was to attack Sparta at its weakest point: its dependence on helots. View all posts by JMcFarland. However, while this strategy was sound in logic, it ended up not leading to a decisive Spartan victory. The peace treaty, known as the Peace of Nicias, was meant to establish peace between Athens and Sparta for fifty years, and it was designed to restore things to the way they were before the Peloponnesian war broke out. Furthermore, the Peace of Nicias treaty stated that each side needed to impose the terms on its allies so as to prevent conflicts that could restart fighting between Athens and Sparta. Desperate to expand, but knowing that doing so on the Greek mainland would almost certainly lead to war with the Spartans, Athens began looking further afield for territories it could place under its control. He ran campaigns in Boeotia and Aetolia to drive back the Spartan forces stationed there, and he was able to have some success. Whenever all of the men would meet once a month they would present issues and vote on what to do to resolve these issues. Bury, J. Due to the relative weakness of the Spartan navy, the Athenian fleet was met with little resistance as it raided smaller communities along the coast. By Staff Writer Last Updated Apr 1, 2020 6:23:57 PM ET Some of the strengths of Athenian democracy include making decisions based on the opinions of many rather than a few, giving responsibility to more citizens and making records available for public examination. The Peloponnesian War marked the dramatic end to the fifth century BC and the golden age of Greece. Great for trade - bad for protection.
Sparta sent forces to support Doris, a city-state in Northern Greece with which it maintained a strong alliance, in a war against Phocis, an ally of Athens. This philosophy, which was present in Athens before the outbreak of the Peloponnesian War, was now running rampant, and it helped provide justification for the Athenian expedition into Sicily, which played an important role in restarting the conflict between Athens and Sparta and also perhaps dooming Athens to defeat. As a result, in 405 BCE, Lysander summoned his fleet and set out for this important part of the Athenian Empire.
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