the growth of urbanization was most pronounced in

Source: World Bank for both GDP Nominal and PPP, 2019. Register in seconds and access exclusive features. The trend toward lower densities has been virtually universal, from Mumbai and Manila to Moscow and Milan. However, if only the countries located completely within the continent are considered, Germany’s population of nearly 84 million would win out. A steady stream of human migration out of the countryside, and into swelling metropolitan centers, has shaken up the world’s power dynamic in just decades. This figure dropped continually, except for between 1940 and 1950 as to its present level (Figure 2) of approximately 3,100 per square mile (1,200 per square kilometer). This data is available from the year 1990. (billed annually). India’s rise has continued to steadily rise to 1-in-3 (33 percent) today. This assumes that the average fertility rate of the world will decline from 2.5 births per woman in the period 2010–2015 to 2.2 in the period 2045–2050. In 2007, urban and rural populations were almost exactly equal at 3.33 billion each. infrastructure. 5. This article was first published in September 2018; and last revised in November 2019. The UN World Urbanization Prospects (2018) database provides a downloadable list of underlying data sources and the statistical concepts used to define ‘urban’ by country.22. Here we have a handful of countries — such as Mongolia, Paraguay, Uruguay, Liberia, Senegal and Afghanistan — where more than half of the country’s urban population live in its largest city. Several central African economies, such as Niger, Uganda, Equatorial Guinea, Angola and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, recorded growth rates well above 3 per cent.

There were other factors as well, such as more efficient manufacturing and commercial operations, that took more space, urban planning requirements in some metropolitan areas (such as Boston and Atlanta) that required larger than market  building lots (large lot zoning)and the general preference for more land and space on the part of consumers. When sufficient information is not available to permit such an adjustment, data based on the concept of city proper or metropolitan area are used.

By contrast, further urbanization in the developing economies of America has been relatively modest.

The figures for the years from 2015 to 2050 are based on the medium fertility variant projection. Thus, private wells by central public water supply. Available at: https://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/abs/10.1086/250060. Finally, economic output—measured in terms of Gross Domestic Product (GDP)—is the most common way to assess the relative prosperity of countries and continents. Whilst there is clearly differences in estimates at the global level, the overall trend in urbanization at national levels (regardless of their definition) is still important. This makes the total urban share 85 percent (more than 6.1 billion people). It’s expected that over a third of the projected urban growth between now and 2050 will occur in just three countries: India, China, and Nigeria. By the end of the 1850s omnibuses in London and Paris carried 40 million passengers annually (Bairoch 1988: 281; Clark 2009: 273). The UN adopts national definitions in its reporting of urban versus rural populations. Statutory places with a municipality, corporation, cantonment board or notified town area committee and places satisfying all of the following three criteria: (1) 5,000 inhabitants or more; (2) at least 75 per cent of male working population engaged in non-agricultural pursuits; and (3) at least 400 inhabitants per square kilometre. Kuroda (1984). UN World Urbanization Prospects (2018). By 2050, it is projected that India could add 416 million urban dwellers, China 255 million, and Nigeria 189 million. Although the definition of ‘urban’ gives us some indication of population densities, it does not differentiate between those that live in small versus large urban settings. By the end of the nineteenth century more than 40 of the 50 largest US cities had extensive water systems created and maintained by the state (Schultz 1989: 164).

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