where was the rallying point for the first crusade

It was launched on November 27, 1095, by Pope Urban II with the primary goal of responding to an appea… It was a holy war but differed from the First Crusade as there was no pilgrimage, no vow and no formal authorisation by the church. It was a new type of epic and heroic narrative, rather than chronicle, history callen a historia. The knighthood and aristocracy developed new devotional and penitential practises that created a fertile ground for crusading recruitment. [20] Theologian Anselm of Lucca took the decisive step towards an authentic crusader ideology, stating that fighting for legitimate purposes could result in the remission of sins. Adhemar considered this was caused by their sinful nature; woman were expelled from the camp, fasting, prayer, alms giving and procession undertaken. The Mongols were a potential ally of the Christian Kingdoms and their defeat was a serious setback for Christians.

"[95] At the same time, the minor knights and soldiers had become increasingly restless and threatened to continue to Jerusalem without their squabbling leaders. When discussing this period, a common historiographical viewpoint advanced by some scholars is that the Franks of northern France, the Provençals of southern France, and the Normans of southern Italy considered themselves separate "nations", creating turmoil as each tried to increase its individual status. The Council of Clermont convoked by Urban on November 18, 1095, was attended largely by bishops of southern France as well as a few representatives from northern France and elsewhere. Instead, this form of religious warfare was popular for centuries and the crusade itself became one of the most written about historic events of the medieval period. [97] The crusaders reached Jerusalem, which had been recaptured from the Seljuqs by the Fatimids only the year before, on 7 June. This crusade was almost annihilated in Asia Minor by the Seljuqs, but the survivors helped to reinforce the kingdom upon their arrival in Jerusalem.[113]. Christian control of the area was recovered and allowed Richard to sign a peace treaty with Saladin. Moreover, Italian shipping was beginning to challenge the Muslim predominance in the Mediterranean. There was no pan-Islamic counter-attack giving the crusaders the opportunity to consolidate. [62][63] It is difficult or impossible to assess the motives of the thousands of poor for whom there is no historical record, or even those of important knights, whose stories were usually retold by monks or clerics.

Mohammad, and later his successors, unleashed a new and powerful political and military force on the Middle East and eventually the world. The Empire's frontiers stretched east to Iran, Bulgaria was under control as was much of southern Italy and piracy in the Mediterranean Sea had been suppressed. [12], Early Christians were used to the use of violence for communal purposes. Other unofficial crusaders from Swabia, led by Hartmann of Dillingen, along with French, English, Lotharingian and Flemish volunteers, led by Drogo of Nesle and William the Carpenter, as well as many locals, joined Emicho in the destruction of the Jewish community of Mainz at the end of May. King Coloman of Hungary allowed Godfrey of Bouillon and his troops to cross Hungary only after Godfrey offered his brother, Baldwin, as a hostage to guarantee his troops' good conduct. [92] Because of what looked like a massive betrayal, the leaders at Antioch, most notably Bohemond, argued that Alexios had deserted the Crusade and thus invalidated all of their oaths to him. He urged those who were guilty of disturbing the peace to turn their warlike energies toward a holy cause.

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