gcse psychology research methods past papers

A weakness of using laboratory experiments is they lack ecological validity. A distinction could be made in some cases between withholding some details about the study (reasonably acceptable) compared to deliberately providing false information (less acceptable). This is thought to increase more realistic responses if participants in a natural experiment are not aware of being observed (unlike lab settings). This would mean that the sample is likely to be more representative of the target population making more valid generalisations possible from the research findings. Opportunity samples have a greater chance of being biased because the sample is drawn from a very narrow part of the target population. The curve shape is what we call the normal distribution curve. Also, the researcher themselves may make a mistake recording the behaviour which can invalidate findings. The tests allow them to be matched in pairs with someone who is deemed to have similar qualities as to them which may be relevant to the study. In most natural observations, people are observed in their normal environments without interference from the researcher. Each bar represents a separate category with them labelled across the x-axis which is at the bottom (horizontal). Questionnaires are practical ways for researchers to gather large amounts of information very quickly on topics where the responses are best suited for yes or no responses. Here’s an example: Does music affect peoples ability to learn? As people get older you may think this has no bearing on a person’s beauty so the two variables would be seen as having zero correlation. This means researchers are required to make lots of measurements of both variables so that the patterns in the data can be reliably established. running occurred 75% of the time. Done. The observers would need to know what they are looking for to make accurate recordings and therefore behavioural categories are created to make it clear what behaviours are to be recorded. Therefore laboratory experiments tend to lack ecological validity as the setup involved to test behaviour may not occur similarly in real life e.g. Sub-groups (or strata) within the population are identified (e.g. However even despite this, it is still possible for the researcher to end up with an unbalanced and biased sample by chance, particularly if the sample size is too small. For example, you could not use the same content for participants to memorise from one condition to another in a memory test experiment. For example, if we wanted to study whether people are more likely to obey a male or female as part of research into obedience, revealing the aims of this study will almost certainly affect their behaviour and invalidate findings. The case study is then written up as a description of the target individual or group and interpret the information based on psychological theories. As part of your GCSE psychology course, you need to be able to highlight ethical concerns and generate ways in which to deal with them. The continuous scores are on the x-axis across the bottom and the frequency of these scores are on the y-axis. AQA A Level psychology past papers can be found on this dedicated page. This is because participants may be unaware of being observed or part of a study and this raises ethical concerns.

A criticism/weakness of using structured interviews is they can be incredibly time consuming and require skilled researchers. • Null Hypotheses Goes with PPT slides) & Mathematics for GCSE Psychology, an Independent Learning Workbook (50 pp), OCR GCSE Research Methods PPT covers: One way psychologists find out about peoples behaviour is to quite simply ask them through the form of interviews.
Another weakness of using field experiments is they raise ethical issues in regards to informed consent. Paper 2: Social context and behaviour: Question Paper Solution: Mark Scheme. This four-part bundle contains a PPT (50 slides), GCSE Research Methods, an Independent Learning Workbook (78 pp. On a graph, this shows as a bell-shaped curve encompassing the mean, median and mode. Refine. The researcher may select the people they think will support their hypothesis, so investigator effects is a potential hindrance. The researcher must design a set of questions for participants to answer; people taking part in a survey are referred to as “respondents” because their answers or behaviours are in response to the questions presented. Solution: Mark Scheme. For example, in an IQ test, most scores for the whole population would be around the mean average with decreasing scores away from this for those with lower IQ’s as well as higher.
Participants should have also given informed consent and know fully what they are consenting to. Therefore this form of sampling method is extremely difficult to execute and can be impractical. This hypothesis assumes that any difference observed is due to sampling or experimentation errors. Respondents may misunderstand the meaning of questions and therefore answer incorrectly.

They should also be told at the beginning what the study is about prior to taking part. This would then be a confounding variable that affects the results. Stratified sampling is the most complex of the sampling methods and it is most often used in questionnaires. Perhaps we find that the students who performed the best were those with prior knowledge of the questions in the test?. For example, having participants memorise 20 “easy” words with similar syllables in one condition, would require a researcher to spend a significant time and effort in creating another set of similar words for another condition. A correlation is quite simply a relationship between two variables. Volunteers may put themselves forward to be part of the study but they may not necessarily be told the aim of the study or what they are really being tested in. Participants should be fully debriefed after the study and given the opportunity to request that their data is withheld. Privacy may be difficult to accomplish from a researchers point of view, particularly when studying participants without their awareness. This means the findings should have high reliability and validity to make generalisations to the target population. They should also be aware of their right to withdraw from the study at any time. within the privacy of their own homes although not when in public areas such as a park. Qualitative data is descriptive data that is non-numerical. Observational studies also raise ethical issues particularly around informed consent as participants are usually not aware of being observed or part of a study. This record of the number of incidents for the different behaviours needs to be accurate and that the observer is recording the correct behaviour within the correct categories. The revision notes cover the AQA exam board and unit 8182 (new specification). OCR GCSE Psychology (9-1) (from 2017) qualification information including specification, exam materials, teaching resources, learning resources These three are the mean, median, mode and range. This can be harder to do with other setups. Counterbalancing helps balance out order effects by splitting the group of participants into two groups. Various techniques may be used such as interviewing people or observing people as they engaged in daily life.

Any form of numerical information collected would also be quantitive such as your age, height, ratings you give something. This is still unbiased as the researcher has no influence as to who is picked and it is technically not a “random sample” either as not everyone gets an equal opportunity to be selected (it is only the person 5 positions away). The risk of harm should be no greater than what they would expect from everyday life and their wellbeing should not be at risk.

OCR GCSE Psychology 9-1 Practice papers. In psychology, as well as other sciences, we use them as part of the scientific method. Therefore matched pair designs can produce invalid results that are not the result of the independent variable.

Interpret graphs for correlation including: The characteristics of normal distribution. Here’s a picture of the one we used earlier to measure the hypothetical study of beauty: Histograms are used to present data that are continuous measurements such as test scores or even height. testing memory and deception may be necessary to gain meaningful insights that would not be otherwise possible. In unstructured interviews, participants are free to discuss anything freely. The British Psychological Society (BPS) guidelines explain what is required: Participants should be respected as individuals and unfair or prejudiced practices are to be avoided. From participants points of view, they should not be exposed to any harm during a study that they wouldn’t be exposed to in ordinary day to day life. Also contains class practical’s, examination style questions and an MCQ Paper (+answers). An issue with deception is it prevents participants from giving informed consent. The behaviours observed in observational studies have higher external validity as they can be more easily generalised. This limits the amount of information that can be gathered but also participants may not be able to answer in certain terms yes to every presented scenario (or no). In an observational study, the researcher watches or listens to the participants engaging in whatever behaviour is being studied and records their behaviour. So to clarify – the independent variable is what we change and the dependent variable is the outcome we then measure. One group will take part in the experimental condition (with the independent variable introduced), while the other group would not be exposed to this and form the control group for comparison.

This is more likely to happen as the same participants are used across the different conditions and they may notice the different setups and the purpose of the study. This form of data is usually not able to explain why particular scores or measurements were achieved so they tell us little about the possible explanations for them. This is in an attempt to generate more realistic behaviour or responses from them that can generalise to real-world settings. For example, if we wanted to check for the relationship between smoking and cancer, this would be unethical to test (asking people to smoke to see if they develop cancer). Gathering too few participants increases the risks of individual differences being the difference in results while gathering a large number requires more time, effort and resources.

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